H acid is a dye intermediate that is produced in batches. In India, H acid manufacturers are producing this acid in the capacity between 10 – 100 tonnes per month. The growth and demand of h-acid manufacturers have created problem for environment. India is the second largest producer of H acid across the world, after China. H-acid is responsible for polluting industrial effluent in the dye and dye intermediate sector.
You must know that manufacturers generate 50 kg of waste while producing 1 kg of H-acid. In other words, it has an E-factor of 50. Moreover, the final isolation step is responsible for 50% of the total waste generated. This waste has dark color, strong acidity and has substituted derivatives of compounds of naphthalene. These are organic substances that harm environment due to negative impact. Naphthalene compounds are toxic and non biodegradable. It is tough to decolorize them and these compounds are resistant to conventional treatment.
While considering the ill-effects of H-acid manufacturing process, the developed countries phased it out with their strict environmental norms.Presently, most of the countries have banned this acid. But the demand of H acid continuous because people have not find any substitute to it.This is why majority of h-acid is sourced from China and India where environmental norms are not strict.H acid plants are affecting health of surrounding environment.
The Bichhri Industrial pollution incident is an instance. Bichhri is a small town near Udaipur was having numerous H-acid plants. The toxic wastewater released from the plants was left untreated and get absorbed by the earth. It badly damaged the groundwater and soil and made it unfit for cultivation. Many plants in Jaitpur and Ratlam were shut down for similar reasons.
How it contaminates?
Since the manufacturers use high-strength acids and alkalis for producing H-acid, the combined wastewater stream gets polluted with high chloride and sulphate content. The presence of toxic naphthalene based intermediates of dye in the wastewater made the product non-biodegradable. Effluents from H-acid manufacturing unit are deeper red and contaminate water if left untreated.
Other uses of H-acid:
Dye manufacturers use H-acid for producing all types of Azo dyes, which are used to dye wools, textiles, paper textiles, and papers. Hyaluronic acid of H-acid is used as medicine. It is extracted from rooster combs or made by bacteria in the laboratory. People consume H-acid for several disorders, including osteoarthritis. It is also used in plastic surgery as lip filler.
For more details, you can search about H-acid manufacturers online and ask the professionals.